A transient ischemic attack (TIA), sometimes called a “mini-stroke,” is a temporary period of neurologic disfunction caused by a short-term interruption to blood flow in the brain. It is known that 13% of children who present with a TIA will have a subsequent stroke, and some will also experience strokes or neurologic symptoms that mimic TIAs. Dr. Smith and his team are working to identify biomarkers, recognizable indicators, or medical characteristics, of a biological phenomenon, specific to TIA in children. Identifying these biomarkers would allow doctors to better facilitate diagnosis and, eventually, stroke prevention treatment. Because children with Moyamoya disease often present with a TIA caused by known arterial stenosis, these children may help doctors find these TIA biomarkers and, perhaps better understand the opportunities for revascularization surgery in children with Moyamoya. Dr. Smith and his team will conduct a longitudinal study collecting clinical and neurologic histories and evaluations of children with Moyamoya in the hopes of learning more about TIA.